The State Duma adopted bills that may prevent the participation of Russian developers in SPO projects

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Summarize this content to 100 words According to information from the OpenNET portal, the State Duma of the Russian Federation adopted in the third reading three draft laws that may hinder the participation of Russian developers in the main international projects of open source software (free software).At the end of July, the State Duma adopted in its final reading draft law No. 346588-8 (amendments to the Federal Law “On Non-Commercial Organizations”), No. 346769-8 (amendments to the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses) and No. 346750-8 (amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and articles) 31 and 151 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation).Together, these amendments prohibit the participation of citizens of the Russian Federation in foreign non-commercial organizations not registered in a special register, which introduce, among other things, criminal liability for organizing the activities of such organizations.According to OpenNET experts, the draft laws submitted to the Federation Council for approval have a very serious side effect – it potentially affects participation in many international projects involved in the development of free software. Most large open projects that are not owned by commercial companies are registered specifically as non-profit organizations in order to be able to legally accept and manage donations, as well as pay for the work of employees. Since the criteria for the application of the law are not defined, anything can be brought under its influence: from commits to the repository to sending an error message. Not only ordinary users of SPO projects, but also employees of Russian companies that carry out the development and implementation of SPO under the import substitution program are at risk of prosecution under the new articles, since it is impossible to do this without upstream participation. Russian developers and project maintainers actively share part of the work with the original projects, and also report on the errors found. Examples of large SPO projects supervised by non-profit organizations, without which no Linux distribution is complete, including domestic ALT Linux, Astra Linux, Rosa Linux and other popular solutions: the Linux kernel (managed by The Linux Foundation);the entire GNU binding of each distribution, including the standard utilities (sed, awk, cat, etc.), the GRUB operating system bootloader, the C/C++ programming language compilers, the GnuPG suite used to sign packages in all distributions, and so on (Free Software Foundation);Firefox web browser and Thunderbird mail client (Mozilla Foundation);DBMS PostgreSQL (The PostgreSQL Foundation);DBMS MariaDB (MariaDB Foundation);the KDE user environment, including all bundled applications, as well as the Krita graphics editor, the Kalligra Office (KDE eV) office suite;the GNOME user environment, including all included applications, as well as the GIMP graphics editor, the GOffice office suite (GNOME Foundation);Python programming language (Python Foundation);PHP programming language (PHP Foundation);programming language Perl (Perl Foundation);programming language Rust (Rust Foundation);the Eclipse development environment and the Jakarta EE platform (Eclipse Foundation);office package LibreOffice (Open Document Foundation);the OpenOffice office package, as well as the Apache http server, the Tomcat application server, etc. (Apache Software Foundation);the Debian distribution, on which some domestic Linux distributions are based (organizations Debian France, Debian.ch);the FreeBSD operating system, including its kernel and all components (FreeBSD Foundation);the OpenBSD operating system, the OpenSSH server, as well as many standard SSH utilities (The OpenBSD Foundation);NetBSD OS (NetBSD Foundation).

The State Duma adopted bills that may prevent the participation of Russian developers in SPO projects

According to information from the OpenNET portal, the State Duma of the Russian Federation adopted in the third reading three draft laws that may hinder the participation of Russian developers in the main international projects of open source software (free software).

At the end of July, the State Duma adopted in its final reading draft law No. 346588-8 (amendments to the Federal Law “On Non-Commercial Organizations”), No. 346769-8 (amendments to the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses) and No. 346750-8 (amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and articles) 31 and 151 of the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation).

Together, these amendments prohibit the participation of citizens of the Russian Federation in foreign non-commercial organizations not registered in a special register, which introduce, among other things, criminal liability for organizing the activities of such organizations.

According to OpenNET experts, the draft laws submitted to the Federation Council for approval have a very serious side effect – it potentially affects participation in many international projects involved in the development of free software.

Most large open projects that are not owned by commercial companies are registered specifically as non-profit organizations in order to be able to legally accept and manage donations, as well as pay for the work of employees. Since the criteria for the application of the law are not defined, anything can be brought under its influence: from commits to the repository to sending an error message. Not only ordinary users of SPO projects, but also employees of Russian companies that carry out the development and implementation of SPO under the import substitution program are at risk of prosecution under the new articles, since it is impossible to do this without upstream participation. Russian developers and project maintainers actively share part of the work with the original projects, and also report on the errors found.

Examples of large SPO projects supervised by non-profit organizations, without which no Linux distribution is complete, including domestic ALT Linux, Astra Linux, Rosa Linux and other popular solutions:

  • the Linux kernel (managed by The Linux Foundation);

  • the entire GNU binding of each distribution, including the standard utilities (sed, awk, cat, etc.), the GRUB operating system bootloader, the C/C++ programming language compilers, the GnuPG suite used to sign packages in all distributions, and so on (Free Software Foundation);

  • Firefox web browser and Thunderbird mail client (Mozilla Foundation);

  • DBMS PostgreSQL (The PostgreSQL Foundation);

  • DBMS MariaDB (MariaDB Foundation);

  • the KDE user environment, including all bundled applications, as well as the Krita graphics editor, the Kalligra Office (KDE eV) office suite;

  • the GNOME user environment, including all included applications, as well as the GIMP graphics editor, the GOffice office suite (GNOME Foundation);

  • Python programming language (Python Foundation);

  • PHP programming language (PHP Foundation);

  • programming language Perl (Perl Foundation);

  • programming language Rust (Rust Foundation);

  • the Eclipse development environment and the Jakarta EE platform (Eclipse Foundation);

  • office package LibreOffice (Open Document Foundation);

  • the OpenOffice office package, as well as the Apache http server, the Tomcat application server, etc. (Apache Software Foundation);

  • the Debian distribution, on which some domestic Linux distributions are based (organizations Debian France, Debian.ch);

  • the FreeBSD operating system, including its kernel and all components (FreeBSD Foundation);

  • the OpenBSD operating system, the OpenSSH server, as well as many standard SSH utilities (The OpenBSD Foundation);

  • NetBSD OS (NetBSD Foundation).

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