DC “Roscosmos” showed declassified data on the creation of “Venus-11” and “Venus-12”

DC “Roscosmos” showed declassified data on the creation of “Venus-11” and “Venus-12”

On January 3, 2024, the State Corporation “Roscosmos” published documents on the creation of automatic stations “Venera-11” and “Venera-12”. Both stations were launched by Proton-K launch vehicles from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in September 1978. Three months later, they made a soft landing on Venus and conducted its research.

The Venera-11 station was launched on September 9, 1978. The duration of her flight to Venus was 107 days. On December 23, 1978, the orbiter and lander separated. The orbiter was taken to a flyby trajectory, and the descending device made a soft landing on the surface of Venus two days later. Information from the landing site was relayed through the orbiter to the Earth for 95 minutes.

During the descent, the scientific instruments of the descending device studied the fine chemical analysis of the composition of the atmosphere and clouds, the spectral analysis of solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere, electrical discharges in the atmosphere of the planet, measured temperature, pressure and aerodynamic loads. Scientific information about interplanetary space was transmitted from the orbiter until February 1980 during a flight in a heliocentric orbit to the Earth.

The Venera-12 station was launched on September 14, 1978. The duration of her flight to Venus was shorter and amounted to 98 days. On December 19, 1978, the orbiter and descent vehicles separated. As in the case of “Venus-11”, the orbiter was launched on a flyby trajectory, and the descending device gently landed on the surface of Venus two days later.

During the descent, the scientific instruments of “Venus-12” studied fine chemical analysis of the composition of the atmosphere and clouds, spectral analysis of solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere, electric discharges in the atmosphere of the planet, measured temperature, pressure and aerodynamic loads.

Scientific data from the landing site were relayed through the orbiter to the Earth for 110 minutes, and the orbiter itself until April 1980, flying in a heliocentric orbit, transmitted information about interplanetary space to scientists.

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